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The Code of Hammurabi, enacted almost 4,000 years ago in Babylon, represents the first known example of a building code.

International Building Code®


International Building Code

In 2000, the International Code Council (ICC), completed a series of model building codes which today serve as the foundation for building and fire codes throughout the United States. Updated every three years, these codes are the culmination of years of "best practices" efforts by the Building Officials Code Administrator's International (BOCA) National Building Code, the Southern Building Code Congress International's Standard Building Code, the International Conference of Building Official's Uniform Building Code. Among the new ICC codes is the International Building Code® which mainly covers fire prevention as related to the construction & design of new buildings.

The portion of the ICC International Building Code® that applies to emergency lighting, exit signs, and "means of egress" is presented below (from the 2009 edition). The International Building Code® is a "model code," and while some states or localities have implemented the code in full, other states or locality have implemented only certain parts and changed others. For the most accurate information on your local codes, check with your local code enforcement agency.

Administered and published by the International Code Council (ICC), the International Building Code® addresses those construction, protection, and occupancy features necessary to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, energy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.


CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION

SECTION 301 GENERAL

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occupancy.


SECTION 302 CLASSIFICATION

302.1 General. Structures or portions of structures shall be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Structures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Section 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved.
    1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5.
    4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 and F-2
    5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5
    6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4
    8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4
    9. Special residence for assisted self-preservation (see Appendix SR): Groups SR-1, SR-2, SR-3 and SR-4
    10. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2
    11. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U

SECTION 303 ASSEMBLY GROUP A

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation.
    Exceptions:
      1. A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy.
      2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant Load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
      3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m²) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
      4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occupancies are not considered separate occupancies except when applying the assembly occupancy requirements of Chapter 11.
      5. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are not considered separate occupancies.
    Assembly occupancies shall include the following:
    A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:
      Motion picture theaters
      Symphony and concert halls
      Television and radio studios admitting an audience
      Theaters
    A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:
      Banquet halls
      Night clubs
      Restaurants
      Taverns and bars
    A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A including, but not limited to:
      Amusement arcades
      Art galleries
      Bowling alleys
      Community halls
      Courtrooms
      Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption)
      Exhibition halls
      Funeral parlors
      Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)
      Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)
      Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)
      Lecture halls
      Libraries
      Museums
      Places of religious worship
      Pool and billiard parlors
      Waiting areas in transportation terminals
    A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:
      Arenas
      Skating rinks
      Swimming pools
      Tennis courts
    A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to:
      Amusement park structures
      Bleachers
      Grandstands
      Stadiums

SECTION 304 BUSINESS GROUP B

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
    Airport traffic control towers
    Ambulatory health care facilities
    Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds
    Banks
    Barber and beauty shops
    Car wash
    Civic administration
    Clinic—outpatient
    Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service
    Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade
    Electronic data processing
    Laboratories: testing and research
    Motor vehicle showrooms
    Post offices
    Print shops
    Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)
    Radio and television stations
    Telephone exchanges
    Training and skill development not within a school or academic program
    304.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
    CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to individuals who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.
304.2 Lockup facilities. Buildings containing lockup facilities, shall comply with the following provisions:
    1. Areas containing lockup facilities shall be separated from other rooms, spaces or areas by an approved smoke barrier (see Section 909.5).
    2. The smoke control zone in which the lockup cells are located shall be provided with an automatic fire sprinkler system complying with Chapter 9 requirements for Group I-3 occupancies.
    3. The smoke control zone in which the lockup area is located shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with the Fire Code Group I-3 occupancies.
    4. The combined occupant load of the holding cells shall not exceed five.

SECTION 305 EDUCATIONAL GROUP E

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at anyone time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1 and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as A-3 occupancies.

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services for more than five children older than 2½ years of age, shall be classified as a Group E occupancy.


SECTION 308 INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a supervised environment, having physical limitations because of health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care or treatment, health care, personal care or in which people are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4.

308.2 Group I-1. This occupancy shall include buildings, structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff and are capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
    Alcohol and drug centers
    Assisted living facilities
    Congregate care residences
    Convalescent facilities
    Group homes
    Halfway houses
    Residential board and care facilities
    Social rehabilitation facilities
A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. A facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 persons, shall be classified as Group R-4.
    308.2.1 Residential facility. A residential facility or portion thereof, subject to licensure by the state, where personal care is administered for more than 16 persons whose occupants may require assisted self-preservation shall be classified as Group SR-l occupancy and shall comply with Appendix SR.
308.3 Group I-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing, health or custodial care for persons who are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
    Child care facilities
    Detoxification facilities
    Hospitals
    Mental hospitals
    Nursing homes
    308.3.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
      CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children, 2½ years of age or less.
      DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that serve patients who are provided treatment for substance abuse on a 24-hour basis and who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or others.
      HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. Buildings or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of inpatients who are incapable of self-preservation.
      NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, serving more than five persons and any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation.
    308.3.2 Residential facility. A residential facility or portion thereof, subject to licensure by the state, where personal care is administered for more than five persons, whose occupants may require assisted self-preservation (impractical), shall be classified as a Group SR-2 occupancy and shall comply with Appendix SR.
308.4 Group I·3. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. An I-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants' control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
    Correctional centers
    Detention centers
    Jails
    Prerelease centers
    Prisons
    Reformatories
Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4.1 through 308.4.5 (see Section 408.1).
    308.4.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.
    308.4.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.
    308.4.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled release of means of egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
    308.4.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
    308.4.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
308.5 Group I-4, day care facilities. This group shall include buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. A facility such as the above with six or fewer persons, or family child care homes (located in a private residence) as defined in Section 310.2, shall be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. Places of worship during religious functions are not included.
    308.5.1 Adult care facility. A facility that provides accommodations for less than 24 hours for more than five unrelated adults and provides supervision and personal care services shall be classified as Group I-4.
      Exception: A facility where occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from the staff shall be classified as Group R-3.
    308.5.2 Child care facility. A facility that provides supervision and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more than five children 2½ years of age or less shall be classified as Group I-4.
      Exception: A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but no more than 100 children 2½ years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.

SECTION 309 MERCANTILE GROUP M

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
    Department stores
    Drug stores
    Markets
    Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
    Retail or wholesale stores
    Sales rooms
309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1).


SECTION 310 RESIDENTIAL GROUP R

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. Residential occupancies shall include the following:

R-l Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including:
    Boarding houses (transient)
    Hotels (transient)
    Motels (transient)
Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:
    Apartment houses
    Boarding houses (nontransient)
    Convents
    Dormitories
    Fraternities and sororities
    Hotels (nontransient)
    Live/work units
    Monasteries
    Motels (nontransient)
    Vacation timeshare properties
Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

Group R-2 occupancies providing 21 or more housing units for low-income elderly, which are financed in whole or in part by the federal or state fund, shall contain a multiservice room adequate in size to seat all the tenants. The multiservice room shall include adjacent toilet facilities for both sexes; a service area with a kitchen sink, countertop and upper and lower cabinets; and a storage room sized to store tables, chairs or benches and janitorial supplies and tools. The multiservice room and accessory rooms shall be accessible to disabled persons (see Chapter 11).

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-l, R-2, R-4 or I, including:

    Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units.
    Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for six or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours.
    Child care facilities that provide accommodations for six or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours.
    Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons.
A Group R-3 residential occupancy, subject to licensure by the state, where personal care is administered for five or fewer persons, whose occupants may require assisted self-preservation shall be classified as a Group SR-3 occupancy and shall comply with the provisions of Appendix SR.

Lodging houses, as defined in this section, are permitted to comply with the Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2.

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities including more than five but not more than 16 occupants, excluding staff.

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in this code or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

A Group R-4 residential occupancy shall include buildings, structures or parts thereof housing more than five, but not more than 16 persons, on a 24-hour basis because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that provides personal care.

A Group R-4 residential occupancy, or portion thereof, subject to licensure by the state, where personal care is administered for more than five, but not more than 16 persons, whose occupants may require assisted self-preservation shall be classified as a Group SR-4 occupancy and shall comply with the provisions of Appendix SR.

310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities.

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.

FAMILY CHILD CARE HOME. Includes certified family child care homes (located in homes licensed for 16 or fewer children) and registered family child care homes (located in homes licensed for 10 or fewer children).

LODGING HOUSE. Any building or portion thereof containing not more than five guest rooms where rent is paid in money, goods, labor or otherwise. The total number of guests shall not exceed 16.

PERSONAL CARE. See Section 102 of Appendix SR.

TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days.


SECTION 312 UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U

312.1 General. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
    Agricultural buildings
    Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (see Section 412.5)
    Barns
    Carports
    Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high
    Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy
    Greenhouses
    Livestock shelters
    Private garages
    Retaining walls
    Sheds
    Stables
    Tanks
    Towers



CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS

SECTION 1001 ADMINISTRATION

1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof.

1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code.


SECTION 1002 DEFINITIONS

1002.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way.

AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle.

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel to an exit.

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits.

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as required to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, vertical exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits.

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, unenclosed exit access stair or unenclosed exit access ramp.

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one building to an area in another building on approximately the same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith.

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.

SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources.



SECTION 1006 MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION

1006.1 Illumination required. The means of egress, including the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building space served by the means ofegress is occupied.
    Exceptions:
      l. Occupancies in Group U.
      2. Aisle accessways in Group A.
      3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-l, R-2 and R-3.
      4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies.
1006.2 Illumination level. The means of egress illumination level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface.
    Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances to not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux), provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system where such system is provided.
1006.3 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply.

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:
      1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and spaces that require two or more means of egress.
      2. Corridors, exit enclosures and exit passageways in buildings required to have two or more exits.
      3. Exterior egress components at other than their levels of exit discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for buildings required to have two or more exits.
      4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 1027.1, in buildings required to have two or more exits.
      5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1008.l.6 for exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have two or more exits.
The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.

1006.4 Performance of system. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any point of 0.1 foot-candle (l lux) measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at any point of 0.06 foot-candIe (0.6 lux) at the end of the emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded.



SECTION 1011 EXIT SIGNS

1011.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Intervening means of egress doors within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor or exit passageway is more than 100 feet (30,480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign.
    Exceptions:
      1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that require only one exit or exit access.
      2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit
signs where approved by the building official.
      3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3.
      4. Exit signs are not required in dayrooms, sleeping rooms or dormitories in occupancies in Group I-3.
      5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are not required on the seating side of vomitories or openings into seating areas where exit signs are provided in the concourse that are readily apparent from the vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to identify each vomitory or opening within the seating area in an emergency.
1011.2 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated.
    Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need not be provided with illumination.
1011.3 Tactile exit signs. A tactile sign stating EXIT and complying with Section 1107.5 shall be provided adjacent to each door to an area of refuge, an exterior area for assisted rescue, an exit stairway, an exit ramp, an exit passageway and the exit discharge.

1011.4 Internally illuminated exit signs. Electrically powered, self-luminous and photoluminescent exit signs shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Chapter 27. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times.

1011.5 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illuminated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 1011.5.3.
    1011.5.1 Graphics. Every exit sign and directional exit sign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than ¾ inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide, except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing between letters shall not be less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Signs larger than the minimum established in this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height.
    The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the background and shall be clearly discernible when the means of exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a chevron directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron directional indicator cannot be readily changed.
    1011.5.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux).
    1011.5.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.
      Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, in case of primary power loss, are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.



SECTION 1024 LUMINOUS EGRESS PATH MARKINGS

1024.1 General. Approved luminous egress path markings delineating the exit path shall be provided in buildings of Groups A, B, E, I, M and R-l having occupied floors located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access in accordance with Sections 1024.1 through 1024.5.
    Exceptions:
      1. Luminous egress path markings shall not be required on the level of exit discharge in lobbies that serve as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, Exception l.
      2. Luminous egress path markings shall not be required in areas of open parking garages that serve as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, Exception 3.
1024.2 Markings within exit enclosures. Egress path markings shall be provided in exit enclosures, including vertical exit enclosures and exit passageways, in accordance with Sections 1024.2.1 through 1024.2.6.
    1024.2.1 Steps. A solid and continuous stripe shall be applied to the horizontal leading edge of each step and shall extend for the full length of the step. Outlining stripes shall have a minimum horizontal width of 1 inch (25 mm) and a maximum width of 2 inches (51 mm). The leading edge of the stripe shall be placed at a maximum of ½ inch (13 mm) from the leading edge of the step and the stripe shall overlap the leading edge of the step by not more than ½ inch (13 mm) down the vertical face of the step.
      Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.
    1024.2.2 Landings. The leading edge of landings shall be marked with a stripe consistent with the dimensional requirements for steps.
    1024.2.3 Handrails. All handrails and handrail extensions shall be marked with a solid and continuous stripe having a minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm). The stripe shall be placed on the top surface of the handrail for the entire length of the handrail, including extensions and newel post caps. Where handrails or handrail extensions bend or turn comers, the stripe shall not have a gap of more than 4 inches (102 mm).
      Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.
    1024.2.4 Perimeter demarcation lines. Stair landings and other floor areas within exit enclosures, with the exception of the sides of steps, shall be provided with solid and continuous demarcation lines on the floor or on the walls or a combination of both. The stripes shall be 1 to 2 inches (25 mm to 51 mm) wide with interruptions not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).
      Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.
      1024.2.4.1 Floor-mounted demarcation lines. Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the wall and shall extend to within 2 inches (51
mm) of the markings on the leading edge of landings. The demarcation lines shall continue across the floor in front of all doors.
        Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure and through which occupants must travel to complete the exit path.
      1024.2.4.2 Wall-mounted demarcation lines. Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed on the wall with the bottom edge of the stripe no more than 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished floor. At the top or bottom of the stairs, demarcation lines shall drop verticalIy to the floor within 2 inches (51 mm) of the step or landing edge. Demarcation lines on walls shall transition vertically to the floor and then extend across the floor where a line on the floor is the only practical method of outlining the path. Where the wall line is broken by a door, demarcation lines on walls shall continue across the face of the door or transition to the floor and extend across the floor in front of such door.
        Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure
and through which occupants must travel to complete
the exit path.
      1024.2.4.3 Transition. Where a wall-mounted demarcation line transitions to a floor-mounted demarcation line, or vice versa, the wall-mounted demarcation line shall drop vertically to the floor to meet a complementary extension of the floor-mounted demarcation line, thus forming a continuous marking.
    1024.2.5 Obstacles. Obstacles at or below 6 feet 6 inches (1981 mm) in height and projecting more than 4 inches (102 mm) into the egress path shall be outlined with markings no less than 1 inch (25 mm) in width comprised of a pattern of alternating equal bands, of luminescent luminous material and black, with the alternating bands no more than 2 inches (51 mm) thick and angled at 45 degrees (0.79 rad). Obstacles shall include, but are not limited to, standpipes, hose cabinets, wall projections and restricted height areas. However, such markings shall not conceal any required information or indicators including, but not limited to, instructions to occupants for the use of standpipes.
    1024.2.6 Doors from exit enclosures. Doors through which occupants within an exit enclosure must pass in order to complete the exit path shall be provided with markings complying with Sections 1024.2.6.1 through 1024.2.6.3.
      1024.2.6.1 Emergency exit symbol. The doors shall be identified by a low-location luminous emergency exit symbol complying with NFPA 170. The exit symbol shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in height and shall be mounted on the door, centered horizontally, with the top of the symbol no higher than 18 inches (457 mm) above the finished floor.
      1024.2.6.2 Door hardware markings. Door hardware shall be marked with no less than 16 square inches (406 mm²) of luminous material. This marking shall be located behind, immediately adjacent to or on the door handle and/or escutcheon. Where a panic bar is installed, such material shall be no less than 1 inch (25 mm) wide for the entire length of the actuating bar or touchpad.
      1024.2.6.3 Door frame markings. The top and sides of the door frame shall be marked with a solid and continuous 1 inch to 2 inch (25 mm to 51 mm) wide stripe. Where the door molding does not provide sufficient flat surface on which to locate the stripe, the stripe shall be permitted to be located on the wall surrounding the frame.
1024.3 Uniformity. Placement and dimensions of markings shall be consistent and uniform throughout the same exit enclosure.

1024.4 Self-luminous and photoluminescent. Luminous egress path markings shall be permitted to be made of any material, including paint, provided that an electrical charge is not required to maintain the required luminance. Such materials shall include, but are not limited to, self-luminous materials and photoluminescent materials. Materials shall comply with either:
    1. UL 1994; or
    2. ASTM E 2072, except that the charging source shall be 1 foot-candle (11 lux) of fluorescent illumination for 60 minutes, and the minimum luminance shall be 30 millicandelas per square meter at 10 minutes and 5 millicandelas per square meter after 90 minutes.
1024.5 Illumination. Exit enclosures where photoluminescent exit path markings are installed shall be provided with the minimum means of egress illumination required by Section 1006 for at least 60 minutes prior to periods when the building is occupied.
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